A bioengineered implant for a predetermined bone cellular response to loading forces. A literature review and case report

Carl E. Misch, Martha W. Bidez, Mohamed Sharawy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


The presence of fibrous tissue has long been known to decrease the long-term survival of a root-form implant. Excessive loads on an osseointegrated implant may result in mobility of the supporting device, and excessive loads may also fracture an implant component or body. Although several conditions may cause crestal bone loss, one of these may be prosthetic overload. Excessive loads on the bone cause strain conditions to increase. These microstrains on the bone may affect the bone remodeling rate in a direct relationship. When strain conditions to the interfacial bone are in the mild overload zone, an increased bone remodeling response occurs, which results in a reactive woven bone formation that is less mineralized and weaker. Greater stresses may cause the interfacial strain to reach the pathologic overload zone and may cause microfracture of the bone, fibrous tissue formation, and/or bone resorption. Recent reports suggest that the bone remodeling rate next to an implant may be used to evaluate biomechanical conditions and their influence on the implant-to-bone interface. These include a number of factors, such as loading conditions, implant body surface conditions, and implant design. For a given load condition, the implant design is one of the primary factors that determine the resultant strain at the interface. A predetermined goal was established to bioengineer a dental implant to load the bone at the interface in a predetermined stress strain relationship, in order to maintain lamellar bone at the interface. A case report is presented of 2 bioengineered implants loaded for 1 year, which demonstrates that the bone was primarily lamellar in structure, the bone turnover rate was less than 5 microns/day, and was the same as the bone away from the interface. These findings corroborate those observed in a prior animal study reported with the same implant design. Although the number of implants evaluated in those 2 reports is few, they support a predetermined histological outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1276-1286
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2001


  • Animal studies
  • Bone and bones/anatomy and histology
  • Bone remodeling
  • Dental implants
  • Follow-up studies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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