A meta-analysis of outcomes comparing flipped classroom and lecture

Chris Gillette, Michael Rudolph, Craig Kimble, Nicole Rockich-Winston, Lisa Smith, Kimberly Broedel-Zaugg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Objective. To examine the evidence of the effectiveness of flipped classroom compared to traditional lecture. Methods. Experimental and observational studies were included and obtained through searches of PubMed, Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), and Google Scholar. Publications from January 1, 2000 through July 1, 2017 were included. Studies were eligible for this research if: (a) the study compared student outcomes using flipped classroom versus lecture and (b) at least one outcome measure was final examination score or final course score. This analysis used a random effects model with weighted mean difference (WMD) as the outcome. Results. Six studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and five were included in the quantitative synthesis. To date, there has only been one prospective randomized comparison of flipped classroom to lecture in student pharmacist education. When comparing final examination scores, there was no significant difference between flipped classroom and lecture based instruction. Only two studies examined the effect of flipped classroom compared to lecture on final course score. This analysis also found no significant difference. Conclusion. Despite a lack of prospective randomized studies, findings from this meta-analysis suggest that flipped classroom may be associated with minimal gains in student knowledge compared to lecture. These findings are important because previous research has estimated that the flipped classroom requires more time to develop and implement. Future studies using prospective randomized designs need to be conducted before widespread adoption.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6898
Pages (from-to)433-440
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of pharmaceutical education
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jun 2018


  • Flipped classroom
  • Lecture
  • Student outcomes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)


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