The FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) mutation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with poor prognosis. We hypothesized that quizartinib, a selective and potent FLT3 inhibitor, with azacitidine (AZA) or low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) might improve the outcomes in patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML. In this open-label phase I/II trial, patients of any age receiving first-salvage treatment for FLT3-ITD AML or age >60 years with untreated myelodysplastic syndrome or AML were treated with quizartinib plus AZA or LDAC. Seventy-three patients were treated (34 frontline, 39 first salvage). With regard to previously untreated patients, the composite response (CRc) rate was 87% (n=13/15: 8 complete responses [CR], 4 CR with incomplete hematologic recovery [CRi], 1 CR without platelet recovery [CRp]) among the patients treated with quizartinib/AZA and 74% (n=14/19: 1 CR, 8 CRi, 5 CRp) among those treated with quizartinib/LDAC. The median overall survival was 19.2 months for the cohort treated with quizartinib/AZA cohort and 8.5 months for the patients treated with quizartinib/LDAC; the corresponding relapse-free survival figures were 10.5 and 6.4 months, respectively. With regard to previously treated patients, the CRc rate was 64% (n=16/25 in the quizartinib/AZA cohort and 29% (n=4/14)) in the quizartinib/LDAC cohort. The median overall survival for patients treated with quizartinib/AZA and quizartinib/LDAC was 12.8 versus 4 months, respectively. QTc prolongation grade 3 occurred in only one patient in each cohort. Quizartinib-based combinations, particularly with AZA, appear effective in both frontline and first salvage therapy for patients with FLT3-ITD-mutated AML and are well tolerated.
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