The Akt family is comprised of three unique homologous proteins with isoform-specific effects, but isoform-specific in vivo data are limited in follicular thyroid cancer (FTC), a PI3 kinase-driven tumor. Prior studies demonstrated that PI3K/Akt signaling is important in thyroid hormone receptor βPV/PV knock-in (PV) mice that develop metastatic thyroid cancer that most closely resembles FTC. To determine the roles of Akt isoforms in this model we crossed Akt1−/−, Akt2−/−, and Akt3−/− mice with PV mice. Over 12 months, thyroid size was reduced for the Akt null crosses (p < 0.001). Thyroid cancer development and local invasion were delayed in only the PVPV-Akt1 knock out (KO) mice in association with increased apoptosis with no change in proliferation. Primary-cultured PVPV-Akt1KO thyrocytes uniquely displayed a reduced cell motility. In contrast, loss of any Akt isoform reduced lung metastasis while vascular invasion was reduced with Akt1 or 3 loss. Microarray of thyroid RNA displayed incomplete overlap between the Akt KO models. The most upregulated gene was the dendritic cell (DC) marker CD209a only in PVPV-Akt1KO thyroids. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated an increase in CD209a-expressing cells in the PVPV-Akt1KO thyroids. In summary, Akt isoforms exhibit common and differential functions that regulate local and metastatic progression in this model of thyroid cancer.
|Original language||English (US)|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2020|
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