Alveolar ridge augmentation using implants coated with recombinant human growth/differentiation factor -5 (rhGDF-5): Radiographic observations

Knut N. Leknes, Jie Yang, Mohammed Qahash, Giuseppe Polimeni, Cristiano Susin, Ulf M E Wikesjö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Objectives: Application of growth factors onto dental implant surfaces is being considered to support local bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and BMP-7 have been shown to support local bone formation, but are also associated with adverse events including seroma formation, extensive bone remodeling, and implant displacement captured in the radiographic evaluation. This report presents mineralized tissue formation and associated adverse events following implantation of recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) coated onto a purpose-designed titanium porous-oxide implant surface. Material and Methods: Twelve young adult Labrador dogs were used. Three 10-mm titanium implants/jaw quadrant were placed 5 mm into the alveolar ridge in the posterior mandible following surgical extraction of the premolar teeth and reduction of the alveolar ridge. Six animals received implants coated with rhGDF-5 at 30 or 60 μg/implant in contralateral jaw quadrants. Six animals received implants coated with rhGDF-5 at 120 μg/implant or uncoated implants (sham-surgery control) using the same split-mouth design. The mucoperiosteal flaps were advanced, adapted, and sutured to submerge the implants. Radiographic recordings were made immediately postsurgery (baseline), and at week 4 and 8 (end of study). Two masked examiners performed the analysis using computer enhanced radiographic images. Results: rhGDF-5 coated implants displayed mineralized tissue formation significantly exceeding that of the sham-surgery control in a dose-dependent order. The greatest increase was observed for implants coated with rhGDF-5 at 60 μg and 120 μg amounting to approximately 2.2 mm for both groups at 8 weeks. Importantly, none of the implants showed evidence of peri-implant bone remodeling, implant displacement, or seroma formation. The newly formed mineralized tissues assumed characteristics of the resident bone. Conclusions: rhGDF-5 coated onto a titanium porous-oxide implant surface exhibits a dose-dependent potential to stimulate local mineralized tissue formation. Application of rhGDF-5 appears safe as it is associated with limited, if any, adverse events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1185-1191
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Oral Implants Research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2013


  • Bone
  • Dog
  • GDF-5
  • Growth/differentiation factor
  • Oral/dental implant
  • Radiology
  • Tissue engineering
  • Titanium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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