Assessment of the golden proportion in natural facial esthetics: A systematic review

Jimmy Londono, Shohreh Ghasmi, Ghida Lawand, Fatemeh Mirzaei, Fatemeh Akbari, Mahmood Dashti

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Statement of problem: Faces considered attractive tend to possess a general harmony; however, scientific studies on the quantitative basis of human facial attractiveness are still sparse. The golden proportion has been the most documented ratio, but the actual existence of codified facial ratios in facially attractive individuals remains unclear. Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate the deviation from the golden proportion in the measurements of different natural vertical facial ratios. Material and methods: A comprehensive search of the electronic databases that included PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Scopus Secondary documents, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was conducted using the terms “golden proportion”, “golden proportions”, “golden ratio”, “golden ratios”, “golden number”, “golden section”, “divine proportion”, “divine proportions”, “divine ratio”, “divine ratios”, and “Fibonacci” in combination with 1 or more of the ensuing terms: “facial proportion”, “facial proportions”, “facial measurement”, and “facial measurements”. Deviation of the facial proportions from the golden proportions was further analyzed by using a 1-sample t test (α=.05). Results: The 1-sample test showed no significant difference among the means of each variable (P>.05), suggesting that the golden proportion is found in natural facial esthetics. Conclusions: No significant association was found between the golden ratio and facial evaluation scores among all ethnicities. The measurements and proportions for facial balance in the study population showed that the participant's facial height proportions did not follow the golden proportion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Prosthetic Dentistry
StateAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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