Carbonating the household diet: A Pakistani tale

Biplab K. Datta, Muhammad Jami Husain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objective: Carbonated beverage consumption is associated with various adverse health conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. Pakistan has a high burden of these health conditions. At the same time, the carbonated beverage industry is rapidly growing in Pakistan. In this context, we analyse the trends and socioeconomic factors associated with carbonated beverage consumption in Pakistan.Design: We use six waves of the cross-sectional household surveys from 2005-2006 to 2015-2016 to analyse carbonated beverage consumption. We examine the trends in carbonated beverage consumption-prevalence for different economic groups categorised by per capita household consumption quintiles. We estimate the expenditure elasticity of carbonated beverages for these groups using a two-stage budgeting system framework. We also construct concentration curves of carbonated beverage expenditure share to analyse the burden of expenditure across households of different economic status.Setting: Pakistan.Participants: Nationally representative sample of households in respective survey waves.Results: We find that the wealthier the household, the higher is the prevalence of carbonated beverage consumption, and the prevalence has increased for all household groups over time. From the expenditure elasticity analysis, we observe that carbonated beverages are becoming an essential part of food consumption particularly for wealthier households. And, lastly, poorer households are bearing a larger share of carbonated beverage expenditure in 2014-2016 than that in 2006-2008.Conclusion: Carbonated beverages are becoming an increasingly essential part of household food consumption in Pakistan. Concerns about added sugar intake can prompt consideration of public health approaches to reduce dietary causes of the disease burden in Pakistan.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1629-1637
Number of pages9
JournalPublic Health Nutrition
Issue number9
StatePublished - Jun 1 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbonated beverages
  • Expenditure elasticity
  • Pakistan
  • Soft drinks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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