Comparative SEM and TEM observations of nanoleakage within the hybrid layer.

H. Sano, M. Yoshiyama, S. Ebisu, M. F. Burrow, T. Takatsu, B. Ciucchi, R. Carvalho, D. H. Pashley

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251 Scopus citations


Most adhesive interface studies have involved SEM demonstration of the penetration of adhesive resins into demineralized dentin surfaces with subsequent creation of hybrid layers. Nanoleakage is a term that describes the diffusion of small ions or molecules within the hybrid layer in the absence of gap formation. The present microscopic study examined the nanoleakage of the hybrid layer using a silver nitrate staining technique. Adhesive dentin sandwiches, which were immersed in a silver nitrate solution, were prepared for both SEM and TEM examination using both the Clearfil Liner Bond and All-Bond 2 adhesive systems. Both systems demonstrated silver accumulation within the hybrid layers. Clearfil Liner Bond System showed scattered silver particles at the bottom two-thirds of the hybrid layer by both SEM and TEM observation, whereas All-Bond 2 revealed stained fiber-like structures within the full thickness of the hybrid layer. To evaluate the quality of the hybrid layer, the utilization of tracer molecules such as silver nitrate that are detectable by both SEM and TEM is proposed. It is important to determine the location and morphology of these nanometer-sized porosities that may permit the hydrolysis of collagen fibers and degradation of adhesive monomers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)160-167
Number of pages8
JournalOperative dentistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1995

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Dentistry


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