The visual axis can be threatened by several pathologies. The options for access to the orbit and optic nerve include intracranial, extracranial open, and extracranial endoscopic approaches. Endoscopic approaches may provide access to the orbit and optic nerve with minimal morbidity.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Rhinology and Facial Plastic Surgery|
|Publisher||Springer Berlin Heidelberg|
|Number of pages||8|
|State||Published - Dec 1 2009|
ASJC Scopus subject areas