Current bladder cancer tests: Unnecessary or beneficial?

Michael A. Simon, Vinata B. Lokeshwar, Mark S. Soloway

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

43 Scopus citations


Bladder cancer is currently diagnosed using cystoscopy and cytology in patients with suspicious signs and symptoms. These same tests are used to monitor patients with a history of bladder cancer for recurrence. The recurrence rate for bladder cancer is high, thus necessitating long-term follow-up. Urine cytology requires an experienced cytopathologist and is costly. It has high specificity, but low sensitivity for low-grade bladder tumors. Recently many non-invasive bladder cancer tests, utilizing markers found in the urine, have been developed. The FDA has approved several of these for the use is bladder cancer diagnosis, and many others are undergoing development and investigation. An ideal bladder cancer test would be non-invasive, highly sensitive and specific, inexpensive, easy to perform, and yield highly reproducible results. Many of the tests reviewed meet some, but not all, of these criteria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)91-107
Number of pages17
JournalCritical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Bladder
  • Bladder cancer
  • Tumor markers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology


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