Cytotoxicity, calcium release, and pH changes generated by novel calcium phosphate cement formulations

Rania M. Khashaba, Petra E. Lockwood, Jill B. Lewis, Regina L W Messer, Norman B. Chutkan, James L. Borke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Few published studies describe the biological properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) for dental applications. We measured several biologically relevant properties of 3 CPCs over an extended (8 wk) interval. Monocalcium phosphate, calcium oxide, and synthetic hydroxyapatite were combined with either modified polyacrylic acid, light-activated modified polyalkenoic acid, or 35% w/w polymethyl vinyl ether maleic acid to obtain Types I, II, and III CPCs, respectively. Set cements were placed in direct contact with L929 fibroblasts for up to 8 weeks. Media Ca+2 and pH were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and pH electrode respectively. Cell mitochondrial function was measured by MTT assay. Type I cements suppressed mitochondrial activity > 90% (vs. Teflon controls), but significantly (p < 0.05) improved to control levels over 8 weeks. Type II cements suppressed mitochondrial activity > 90% at all times. Type III cements elevated mitochondrial activity significantly after 7 wks. The pH profiles approached neutrality by 24 h, and all cements released calcium into the storage medium at all periods (24 h - 8 wk). We concluded that several types of cements had long-term biological profiles that show promise for dental applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)297-303
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2010


  • Calcium phosphate(s)
  • Cell culture
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Dental/craniofacial material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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