Patients who present with unique immunological phenotypes provide an opportunity to better understand defect-driving mutations. In this issue of the JCI, Cottineau and colleagues characterize 5 individuals who exhibited growth restriction, facial deformities, and a history of bacterial and viral infection. Further characterization revealed that these patients were neutropenic and NK cell deficient. These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. Together, the results of this study lay the groundwork for future studies to explore the role of DNA replication in immune cell generation and function.
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