Dentin Cross-linking Effect of Carbodiimide After 5 Years

T. Maravic, E. Mancuso, A. Comba, V. Checchi, L. Generali, C. Mazzitelli, U. Josic, V. Hass, A. Reis, A. D. Loguercio, F. R. Tay, L. Breschi, A. Mazzoni

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19 Scopus citations


Carbodiimide (EDC)–based dentin primers preserve hybrid layer (HL) integrity. However, aging >1 y has not been investigated. The present study examined whether the cross-linking effect of EDC was reflected in dentin bond strength, endogenous enzymatic activity, and the chemical profile of the HL after 5-y aging in artificial saliva. Noncarious human third molars (N = 42) were cut to expose middle/deep coronal dentin and treated as follows: group 1, dentin etched with 35% H3PO4, pretreated with a 0.3M aqueous EDC primer for 1 min and restored with XP Bond (Dentsply Sirona); group 2, as in group 1 but without EDC pretreatment; group 3, Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray-Noritake) primer applied to dentin surface, followed by EDC pretreatment as in group 1 and application of bond; group 4, as in group 3 without EDC pretreatment. After composite buildup, the specimens were cut into sticks or slabs, depending on the experiment. All tests were performed at baseline (T0) and after 5 y of aging (T5) in artificial saliva at 37 °C. Microtensile bond strength (µTBS) was tested at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until failure. Endogenous enzymatic activity was investigated with in situ zymography. The chemical profile of HL was determined via Raman spectroscopy. Three-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey test were used to analyze µTBS and in situ zymography data (α = 0.05). EDC pretreatment and aging significantly influenced µTBS and in situ zymography results (P < 0.05). Higher bond strength and lower gelatinolytic activity were identified in the EDC-treated groups at T5 (P < 0.05), especially in the etch-and-rinse groups. Raman spectra revealed less defined amide III peaks in control specimens at T5. The EDC cross-linking effect persisted in the HL for 5 y in terms of bond strength, collagen structure preservation, and dentinal enzyme silencing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1090-1098
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Dental Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • carbodiimides
  • dental bonding
  • dentin
  • fibrillar collagen
  • hydrolysis
  • matrix metalloproteinases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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