Development and Initial Validation of the Multicultural Training and Education Questionnaire

Melanie M. Wilcox, Michael M. Gale, Kristin L. McLaughlin, Emily Squyres, Emily C. Burish, Jam Khojasteh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Given the importance of culturally sensitive psychotherapy, it is necessary to identify training and education elements that foster the development of multicultural competence and multicultural orientation among trainees. Thus, in this article, we describe the development and initial validation of the Multicultural Training and Education Questionnaire (MTEQ). After generating an initial 98 items which underwent expert review, the preliminary measure was administered to a sample (N = 582) of psychotherapy trainees (n = 408) and professionals (n = 174). Exploratory factor analyses suggested that a one-, two-, three-, or four-factor structure best fit the data. Subsequently and based on the preliminary analyses, 38 of the original 98 items were administered to a second sample (N = 336) of trainees (n = 284) and professionals (n = 52). Participants (n = 269) additionally completed the Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness Scale, the Colorblind Racial Attitudes Scales, and the Research Training Environment Scale—Revised—Short Form. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a unidimensional latent factor structure for Multicultural Training and Education as well as four subscales: Importance of Modeling, Clinical Application, Self-Exploration/Awareness, and Education and Knowledge. The MTEQ further demonstrated good internal consistency as well as divergent and convergent validity. Thus, our results suggest that the MTEQ offers a viable way to operationalize and measure multicultural education and training. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-66
Number of pages12
JournalTraining and Education in Professional Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Multicultural
  • Multicultural training
  • Scale development
  • Supervision and training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Psychology(all)


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