Development and psychometric properties of the HPV Impact Profile (HIP) to assess the psychosocial burden of HPV

T. Christopher Mast, Xingshu Zhu, Carla Demuro-Mercon, Holly W. Cummings, Heather L. Sings, Daron G. Ferris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


Objective: A comprehensive questionnaire designed to assess the full spectrum of potential human papillomavirus (HPV)-related psychosocial effects in women does not exist. The HPV Impact Profile (HIP) was developed to determine the psychosocial impact of HPV infection and related interventions. Research design and methods: Draft instrument items and domains were developed using a literature review and cognitive debriefing interviews with women who had experienced HPV-related conditions. An importance rating questionnaire guided item ranking and reduction. A draft questionnaire was pilot-tested for comprehension and ease of completion. Psychometric evaluation of the final HIP was conducted in a survey of 583 women. Data quality, item acceptability, scale acceptability, reliability, and discriminate construct validity were assessed. Outcome measure: The final HIP contained 29 items rated on a 0-10 point discretized visual analog scales grouped into seven hypothesized domains. Results: Total HIP scores ranged from 0 (no impact) to 100 (worst impact). Data quality was high, with missing data for items ranging from 0 to 0.7% and over 99% of the scores were computable. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 to 0.90 and was ≥0.7 for 5/7 domains. Discriminant construct validity was demonstrated. Appropriate modifications could potentially be made to improve some aspects of the HIP, including modification to include other HPV diseases such as head and neck, anal, and vulvovaginal cancers and HPV disease in men. Conclusions: The disease-specific HIP has favorable reliability and construct validity and a good ability to discriminate among disease severity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2609-2619
Number of pages11
JournalCurrent Medical Research and Opinion
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2009


  • Human papillomavirus
  • Instrument development
  • Psychosocial
  • Quality of life
  • Questionnaire

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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