Development and validation of patient-community pharmacist encounter toolkit regarding substance misuse: Delphi procedure

Sarah Fatani, Daniel Bakke, Katelyn Halpape, Marcel D'Eon, Anas El-Aneed

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background: Pharmacists’ roles and services for patients with substance use are not well defined and inconsistent from site to site. Several barriers have been identified that hinder pharmacists’ care for people who use substances, such as a lack of training and resources. Clinical practice tools can aid in transferring evidence-based approaches to the practice sphere. Objectives: The aim of the study was to develop a substance misuse management toolkit for community pharmacists to help them manage their encounters with people who use substances. Methods: A focused literature review was conducted and 2 needs assessment studies, one for community pharmacists and one for patients informed the development of the toolkit. The toolkit is an adaption of the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) approach, which is one of the most well-defined and effective strategies for substance use management. However, SBIRT is a novel care model in community pharmacy settings. Therefore, a substance misuse management toolkit with 20 items was created for community pharmacists incorporating evidence-based strategies and clinical algorithms. Delphi procedure was used to validate the toolkit. Results: Two rounds of questions were sent to experts in the field of substance misuse, some of whom were pharmacists. In both rounds, these experts were asked to rate the appropriateness and clarity of items in the toolkit and provide comments and suggestions. Items with a median rating of 7 or more out of 10 were included in the toolkit. In the second round, the experts were asked to rerate the revised version and provide additional feedback. After the second round, agreement was reached for almost all items of the toolkit. Conclusion: A Delphi procedure was successfully used to provide evidence of the validity of the new guiding toolkit for community pharmacists. The toolkit will be implemented and evaluated to provide additional evidence of validity in practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)176-186
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of the American Pharmacists Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (nursing)
  • Pharmacy
  • Pharmacology


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