Relatively simple, synthetic, double-stranded RNAs can be powerful viral pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) mimics, inducing a panoply of antiviral and antitumor responses that act at multiple stages of host defense. Their mechanisms of action and uses are beginning to be understood, alone, in combination with other therapeutics, or as novel PAMP-adjuvants providing the critical danger signal that has been missing from most cancer and other modern vaccines. Dose, timing, route of administration combinations, and other clinical variables can have a critical impact on immunogenicity. This article reviews advances in the use of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid and derivatives, in particular poly-ICLC.
- Prostate cancer
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