Early childhood gut microbiomes show strong geographic differences among subjects at high risk for type 1 diabetes

Kaisa M. Kemppainen, Alexandria N. Ardissone, Austin G. Davis-Richardson, Jennie R. Fagen, Kelsey A. Gano, Luis G. León-Novelo, Kendra Vehik, George Casella, Olli Simell, Anette G. Ziegler, Marian J. Rewers, Åke Lernmark, William Hagopian, Jin Xiong She, Jeffrey P. Krischer, Beena Akolkar, Desmond A. Schatz, Mark A. Atkinson, Eric W. Triplett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

72 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. This pilot study determines howgeographical location affects the microbiome of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: High-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on stool samples collected from 90 high-risk, nonautoimmune infants participating in The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study in the U.S., Germany, Sweden, and Finland. RESULTS: Study site-specific patterns of gut colonization share characteristics across continents. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity, while Sweden and Washington state are dominated by Bifidobacterium in early life. Bacterial community diversity over time is significantly different by geographical location. CONCLUSIONS: The microbiome of high-risk infants is associated with geographical location. Future studies aiming to identify the microbiome disease phenotype need to carefully consider the geographical origin of subjects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)329-332
Number of pages4
JournalDiabetes Care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing


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