Effects of enamel matrix derivative on Porphyromonas gingivalis

Seth A. Newman, Salvatore A. Coscia, Ravi Jotwani, Vincent J. Iacono, Christopher W. Cutler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Background: Enamel matrix derivative (EMD) is used during periodontal surgery for the regeneration of periodontal tissue. It consists of the amelogenin fraction of porcine enamel matrix (AMEL) suspended in a vehicle of propylene glycol alginate (PGA). EMD-treated sites appear to heal with less inflammation. It has been suggested that antimicrobial properties of EMD might account for improved healing in vivo. The objectives of this study were: 1) to determine the antibacterial effects of EMD on the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis and 2) to establish the component(s) of EMD that are responsible for this effect. Methods: The antimicrobial effects were determined in vitro using the broth dilution assay. P. gingivalis at a starting inoculum of 109 colony forming units/ml was treated with EMD, AMEL, and PGA in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) for 1, 3, and 24 hours. The CFU/ml of P. gingivalis recovered on enriched Brucella blood agar was determined at 6 and 10 days. Results: EMD (containing AMEL and PGA) or PGA alone eliminated recoverable CFUs of P. gingivalis. Interestingly, AMEL in HBSS increased recoverable CFUs from 8.62 log CFU/ml to 8.93 log CFU/ml. Further analysis of the dose response at concentrations of 0.3, 3, and 30 mg/ml of AMEL in HBSS revealed that only 30 mg/ml (clinical concentration) increased CFUs of P. gingivalis relative to baseline (from 8.8 log CFU/ml to 9.2 log CFU/ml in 3 hours). Additionally, AMEL was compared to a protein control bovine serum albumin (BSA) to determine whether this effect was unique to AMEL. A marked increase in recoverable CFUs occurred with the AMEL (increasing from 8.8 log CFU/ml to 9.47 log CFU/ml), but not with BSA. Conclusions: EMD possesses antimicrobial properties that can be attributed to the propylene glycol alginate vehicle. The amelogenin fraction of porcine enamel matrix in enamel matrix derivative (i.e., AMEL) is not antibacterial for P. gingivalis and was shown to increase recoverable CFUs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1191-1195
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of periodontology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Enamel matrix derivative
  • Periodontal diseases/surgery
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis
  • Propylene glycols
  • Wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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