Effects of HEMA on water evaporation from water-HEMA mixtures

Edna L. Pashley, Yi Zhang, Petra E. Lockwood, Frederick A. Rueggeberg, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

107 Scopus citations


Objectives. The aims of this research were: (1) to determine the relative rates of evaporation of water and HEMA, and (2) to determine the effects of increasing concentrations of HEMA on the rate of evaporation of water from water and HEMA mixtures. Methods. Ten microliters of each solution (100% H2O, 75% H2O-25% HEMA, 50% H2O-50% HEMA, 25% HEMA, 100% HEMA) were placed on the pan of a thermogravimetric analysis instrument held at 37°C. The rate of spontaneous weight loss was measured as a function of time and relative humidity (RH) and compared statistically using ANOVA and Scheffé F test. Results. The rate of evaporation of pure water was 32-fold higher than that of 100% HEMA. Addition of HEMA to water lowered the rate of evaporation of water from the water-HEMA mixtures in a manner that was proportional to its effect on lowering the vapor pressure of water (p < 0.05 comparing 50% HEMA with 75% HEMA). The rate of evaporation of water from water-HEMA mixtures was higher (p < 0.05) when the ambient gas was at 0% RH than when it was at 51% RH. Significance. The results indicate that as water evaporates from water-HEMA mixtures, the concentration of HEMA rises because it is relatively non-volatile. This rise in HEMA concentration lowers the vapor pressure of water making it more difficult to remove the last amounts of water. This residual water may interfere with polymerization of adhesive monomers, thereby lowering the quality of the hybrid layer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-10
Number of pages5
JournalDental Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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