Effects of pH, ionic strength, and applied voltage on migration of dental monomers in an organic matrix

Martino Colonna, Marco Breschi, Annalisa Mazzoni, Fernando Nato, Alessandra Ruggeri, Cesare Nucci, Franklin Chi Meng Tay, David Henry Pashley, Lorenzo Breschi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Objectives: The application of an electric field has been shown to positively influence the bonding of dentin bonding systems (DBS) by improving adhesive impregnation into dentin. However, the mechanism responsible for this phenomenon has not been completely elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of pH, matrix ionic strength, and applied voltage on the migration of commonly used DBS monomers in a model matrix (agarose gel). Methods: Some common monomers examined were bis-GMA (2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3- methacryloyloxy propoxy) phenyl] propane); HEMA (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate); 2-MP (bis[2-(methacryloyloxy) ethyl] phosphate); TCDM [di(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) ester of 5-(2,5,-dioxo tetrahydrofurfuryl)-3-methyl-3- cyclohexenyl-1,2-dicarboxylic acid]; and TEGDMA (triethylene glycol dimethacrylate). Agarose gels poured into a horizontal 10-well electrophoretic cell were used to mimic the collagen fibrils of the dentin organic matrix. The role of pH, matrix ionic strength, and voltage on monomer migration was assayed by modifying the experimental conditions. Results: Results of experiments performed at pH 3.1, 6.3, 8.5, and 12.3; at low, medium, and high ionic strength; and at 50 and 100 V clearly showed that DBA monomer migration toward both the anode and the cathode can be affected by each of these parameters. Significance: Migration of acrylic monomers toward the anode or cathode can be achieved as desired by selective choice of pH, ionic strength, and applied voltage. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the synergistic effects of DBS monomer blends on migration in an electric field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1180-1186
Number of pages7
JournalDental Materials
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Agarose gel
  • Dentin bonding systems (DBS)
  • Electric field
  • Organic matrix

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • General Dentistry
  • Mechanics of Materials


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