Enamel remineralization via poly(amido amine) and adhesive resin containing calcium phosphate nanoparticles

Yuan Gao, Kunneng Liang, Michael D. Weir, Jianghong Gao, Satoshi Imazato, Franklin R. Tay, Christopher D. Lynch, Thomas W. Oates, Jiyao Li, Hockin H.K. Xu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate enamel remineralization using salivary statherin protein-inspired poly(amidoamine) dendrimer (SN15-PAMAM) and adhesive containing nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) in a cyclic artificial saliva/demineralizing solution for the first time. Methods: The enamel shear bond strengths of NACP adhesives were measured compared to commercial adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3 M). Adhesive disks containing NACP were tested for calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) ions release. Four groups were tested: (1) enamel control, (2) enamel with NACP, (3) enamel with SN15-PAMAM, and (4) enamel with SN15-PAMAM + NACP. The specimens were treated with cyclic artificial saliva/demineralizing solution for 28 days. The remineralized enamel specimens were examined by surface and cross-sectional hardness test. Results: NACP adhesive yielded a similar shear bond strength to commercial control (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3 M). NACP adhesive released high levels of Ca and P ions. At 28 days, the enamel hardness of SN15-PAMAM + NACP group was 2.89 ± 0.13 GPa, significantly higher than that of control group (1.46 ± 0.10 GPa) (p < 0.05). SN15-PAMAM + NACP increased the enamel cross-sectional hardness at 28 days; at 25 μm, enamel cross-sectional hardness was 90 % higher than that of control group (p < 0.05). Significance: The novel SN15-PAMAM + NACP adhesive method could achieve 90 % higher enamel remineralization of the artificial caries than the control under acid challenge for the first time. This method is promising for use after tooth cavity preparation, or as a coating on enamel with white spot lesions (WSLs) for prevention, to reduce secondary caries, prevent caries procession and protect tooth structures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103262
JournalJournal of Dentistry
StatePublished - Jan 2020


  • Adhesive
  • Enamel hardness
  • Enamel remineralization
  • Nano-calcium phosphate
  • Statherin protein poly(amidoamine) dendrimer
  • pH cycling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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