Evaluation of Cleaning Methods on Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic Surfaces After Organic Contamination

J. Fagan, J. Vesselovcz, J. Puppin-Rontani, L. Correr-Sobrinho, Kms Freitas, T. C. Robertson, R. R. Pacheco, Nip Pini, D. Sundfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The purposes of this study were to 1) evaluate the effectiveness of different cleaning methods from a previously etched and silanized lithium disilicate glass ceramic (EMX) surface after contact with organic fluids (saliva or human blood) and 2) assess the effect of applying a new silane layer after the cleaning methods on the microshear bond strength (mSBS) of resin cement to EMX. EMX discs were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and properly silanized. Three control groups were created (n=10): control (without contamination), saliva positive, and human blood positive. Later, after new contaminations, the samples were distributed into four groups according to the cleaning method (n=20): air-water spray (AWS), 35% phosphoric acid, 70% alcohol, or Ivoclean cleaning paste. After the cleaning methods, subgroups were submitted to a new silane layer application, or not (n=10). All samples received a thin layer of a bonding agent and, subsequently, three light-cured resin cement cylinders were prepared on each EMX surface for the mSBS test. This test was performed on a universal testing machine at a vertical speed of 1 mm/minute until rupture. Contaminated and cleaned silanized EMX surfaces were assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (n=1). The noncontaminated control group showed an average mSBS of 18.7 MPa, and the positive saliva and human blood control groups yielded a 34% and 42% reduction in bond strength, respectively, compared to the uncontaminated control (p<0.05). For saliva-contaminated surfaces, all cleaning methods were effective and not different from one another or the control group (p>0.05). However, for human blood contamination, only Ivoclean cleaning paste was effective in restoring μSBS to uncontaminated control group levels (p>0.05). SEM images showed a clean surface (ie, with no contaminant residues) after the cleaning methods, regardless of the organic contaminant type. All the assessed cleaning methods were effective in removing saliva from the silanized EMX surface; however, only Ivoclean was able to restore the adhesion quality when the silanized EMX surface was contaminated with human blood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E81-E90
JournalOperative dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2022
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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