Events of wound healing/regeneration in the canine supraalveolar periodontal defect model

Douglas P. Dickinson, Brandon G. Coleman, Nathan Batrice, Jaebum Lee, Komal Koli, Cathy Pennington, Cristiano Susin, Ulf M E Wikesjö

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Aim The objective of this research was to elucidate early events in periodontal wound healing/regeneration using histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Methods Routine critical-size, supraalveolar, periodontal defects including a space-providing titanium mesh device were created in 12 dogs. Six animals received additional autologous blood into the defect prior to wound closure. One animal from each group was killed for analysis at 2, 5, 9, 14 days, and at 4 and 8 weeks. Results Both groups behaved similarly. Periodontal wound healing/regeneration progressed through three temporal phases. Early phase (2-5 days): heterogeneous clot consolidation and cell activation in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and trabecular bone was associated with PDL regeneration and formation of a pre-osteoblast population. Intermediate phase (9-14 days): cell proliferation (shown by PCNA immunostaining)/migration led to osteoid/bone, PDL and cementum formation. Late phase (4-8 weeks): primarily characterized by tissue remodelling/maturation. Fibrous connective tissue from the gingival mucosa entered the wound early, competing with regeneration. By day 14, the wound space was largely filled with regenerative and reparative tissues. Conclusion Activation of cellular regenerative events in periodontal wound healing/regeneration is rapid; the general framework for tissue formation is broadly outlined within 14 days. Most bone formation apparently originates from endosteally derived pre-osteoblasts; the PDL possibly acting as a supplementary source, with a primary function likely being regulatory/homeostatic. Blood accumulation at the surgical site warrants exploration; supplementation may be beneficial.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)527-541
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Clinical Periodontology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2013


  • cementum
  • critical-size defect
  • osteoid
  • periodontal ligament
  • periodontal regeneration
  • reparative tissue
  • wound healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Periodontics


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