External genital human papillomavirus prevalence and associated factors among heterosexual men on 5 continents

Eftyhia Vardas, Anna R. Giuliano, Stephen Goldstone, Joel M. Palefsky, Edson D. Moreira, Mary E. Penny, Carlos Aranda, Heiko Jessen, Harald Moi, Daron G. Ferris, Kai Li Liaw, J. Brooke Marshall, Scott Vuocolo, Eliav Barr, Richard M. Haupt, Elizabeth I.O. Garner, Dalya Guris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

77 Scopus citations


Background. We examined the baseline prevalence of penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal human papillomavirus (HPV) in heterosexual men (HM). We also evaluated baseline characteristics of HM to assess factors associated with prevalent HPV detection. Methods. We tested serum samples from 3463 HM aged 16-24 years with 1-5 lifetime female sexual partners for antibodies to HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18. We collected baseline swab specimens for the detection of DNA of HPV 6, 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, and 59 from 3 areas: penile, scrotal, and perineal/perianal. Risk factors for prevalent HPV DNA detection were evaluated. Results. The prevalence of any tested HPV type was 18.7% at the penis, 13.1% at the scrotum, 7.9% at the perineal/perianal region, and 21.0% at any site. Having >3 lifetime female sexual partners had the greatest impact on HPV prevalence: odds ratio (OR) 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.1-4.9) for HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18; and OR 4.5 (95% CI 3.3-6.1) for all HPV types tested. HPV DNA detection was highest in Africa. Neither condom usage nor circumcision was associated with HPV DNA prevalence. Conclusion. Genital-HPV DNA detection is common in young, sexually active HM. We found HPV to be most prevalent in African men and least prevalent in men from the Asia-Pacific region. Increased numbers of sexual partners was an important risk factor for HPV DNA prevalence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)58-65
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases


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