Factors Affecting the Composition of Expressed Fresh Human Milk

Quyen Pham, Pinkal Patel, Babak Baban, Jack Yu, Jatinder J Bhatia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Breast milk is considered the ideal and preferred feeding for all infants through the first 4-6 months of life. It provides many short and long-term benefits to the infant and mother. In the absence of breastfeeding, expressed breast milk is the best way to provide nutrition. In the United States, the majority of breastfeeding mothers express milk at some point during the course of lactation. Breast milk is a dynamic fluid and its content changes with duration of lactation and varies between and among women. Many factors such as maternal diet and medications affect the constituents of breast milk. In addition, method of breast milk expression, handling, and storage can also influence its contents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)551-558
Number of pages8
JournalBreastfeeding Medicine
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2020


  • HMO
  • breast milk expression
  • breast milk handling
  • breast milk storage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics
  • Health Policy
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery


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