Fatigue resistance of dentin bonds prepared with two- vs. three-step adhesives: Effect of carbodiimide

Zihou Zhang, Dylan Beitzel, Hessam Majd, Mustafa Mutluay, Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Franklin R. Tay, David H. Pashley, Dwayne Arola

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


The application of a cross-linker to demineralized dentin is reportedly effective at extending the durability of dentin bonds. Objective To compare the effect of a cross-linker pretreatment on the fatigue crack growth resistance of resin–dentin bonds prepared with a two- vs. three-step adhesive system. Methods Bonded interface Compact Tension (CT) specimens were prepared using commercial two- and three-step etch-and-rinse adhesives and compatible hybrid resin-composite. For the treated groups, adhesive bonding was preceded by a 1 min application of an experimental carbodiimide (EDC) conditioner to the acid-etched dentin. The control groups received no such treatment. The fatigue crack growth resistance was examined after storage in artificial saliva at 37 °C for 0, 3 and 6 months. Results There was no significant difference in the immediate fatigue crack growth resistance the control and EDC-treated groups at 0 months for either adhesive system. After 3 and 6 months of storage, the EDC-treated groups exhibited significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) fatigue crack growth resistance than the controls. Although the EDC treatment was equally effective in deterring degradation for both adhesives, bonds prepared with the three-step system exhibited the lowest resistance to fatigue crack growth overall. Significance An EDC treatment applied during dentin bonding could help maintain the durability of bonds prepared with two or three-step adhesive bonding systems.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1340-1350
Number of pages11
JournalDental Materials
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2017


  • Collagen
  • Cross-linker
  • Dentin bonding agents
  • Durability
  • EDC
  • Endogenous proteinases
  • Fatigue crack growth
  • Fracture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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