First-order mathematical correlation between damping and resonance frequency evaluating the bone-implant interface

Taek Ka Kwon, Hae Young Kim, Jae Ho Yang, Ulf M E Wikesjö, Jaebum Lee, Ki Tae Koo, In Sung Yeo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: Various advanced technologies have been designed to estimate dental implant stability, including insertion torque, implant damping using the Periotest, and resonance frequency analysis expressed in implant stability quotient units. This study aimed to establish the relationship between the estimates for these three techniques. Materials and Methods: Bovine cortical bone blocks were trimmed to square shapes of precisely controlled thickness and density. Thereafter, 4-mm-diameter × 10-mm-long implants were placed in the bone blocks using 30-, 45-, and 60-Ncm insertion torques. Implant damping and resonance frequency analysis were conducted at four angles for each implant. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated to examine the relationship between insertion torque, resonance frequency analysis, and implant damping measured values. Results: Resonance frequency analysis and implant damping estimates exhibited a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.98, P < .001). A linear equation was formulated: Periotest value = 15.54 + (-0.26 × implant stability quotient). Implant damping and resonance frequency estimates revealed a weak correlation with insertion torque (P < .05). Conclusion: This study mathematically defined a linear correlation between implant damping and resonance frequency estimates, thereby providing a guide for clinicians when deciding the loading time for dental implants using the implant damping or resonance frequency estimates.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1008-1015
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2016


  • Damping
  • Implant stability
  • Insertion torque
  • Periotest
  • Resonance frequency analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oral Surgery


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