Gastric electrical stimulation: Twentieth century development to twenty-first century implementation and personalization of programming

James Griffith, Sumanth Daram, Ben Boatright, Joy Hughes, Christopher J. Lahr, Archana Kedar, Thomas L. Abell

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Gastroparesis is an incompletely understood disorder characterized by vomiting, nausea, abdominal pain, and related symptoms amongst evidence of delayed gastric emptying often refractory to medical therapy. Gastric electrical stimulation (GES), using higher than physiologic frequency and low energy, has been shown to be effective in many patients with refractory symptoms and received Humanitarian Use Device approval in 2000. A meta-analysis suggests GES is effective for symptom control and favorable in gastric emptying, nutritional status, and quality of life analysis. Recent work with endoscopically placed, temporary GES indicates trial stimulation is important in the evaluation of stimulation devices. In addition, approximately 50 % of patients responded to standard settings [4, Neurogastroenterol Motil 18(4):334–338, 2006] while other patients require higher energy settings for optimal response. These recent studies offer the potential for personalization of stimulation parameters in a given patient. For GES to be accepted and adopted on more widespread basis, further evaluation of individual responses to simulation must be determined and then correlated with individual histologic, electrophysiological and biochemical findings to optimally help patients. This chapter will discuss the historical development of current GES therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationLecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2013

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics
ISSN (Print)2212-9391
ISSN (Electronic)2212-9413


  • Europe
  • Obesity
  • Placebo
  • Titration
  • Washout

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Artificial Intelligence


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