Gene Expression Profiles Define a Key Checkpoint for Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice

Sarah E. Eckenrode, Qingguo Ruan, Ping Yang, Weipeng Zheng, Richard A McIndoe, Jin-Xiong She

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


cDNA microarrays with > 11,000 cDNA clones from an NOD spleen cDNA library were used to identify temporal gene expression changes in NOD mice (1-10 weeks), which spontaneously develop type 1 diabetes, and changes between NOD and NOD congenic mice (NO-D.Idd3/Idd10 and NOD.B10Sn-H2b), which have near zero incidence of insulitis and diabetes. The expression profiles identified two distinct groups of mice corresponding to an immature (1-4 weeks) and mature (6-10 weeks) state. The rapid switch of gene expression occurring, around 5 weeks of age defines a key immunological checkpoint. Sixty-two known genes are upregulated, and 18 are downregulated at this checkpoint in the NOD. The expression profiles are consistent with increased antibody production, antigen presentation, and cell proliferation associated with an active autoimmuneresponse. Seven of these genes map to confirmed diabetes susceptibility regions. Of these seven, three are excellent candidate genes not previously implicated in type 1 diabetes. Ten genes are differentially expressed between the NOD and congenic NOD at the immature stage (Hspa8, Hif1a, and several involved in cellular functions), while the other 70 genes exhibit expression differences during the mature (6-10 week) stage, suggesting that the expression differences of a small number of genes before onset of insulitis determine the disease progression.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)366-375
Number of pages10
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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