Intraperitoneal adhesions complicate over half of abdominal-pelvic surgeries with immediate, short, and long-term sequelae of major healthcare concern. The pathogenesis of adhesion development is similar to the pathogenesis of wound healing in all tissues, which if unchecked result in production of fibrotic conditions. Given the similarities, we explore the published literature to highlight the similarities in the pathogenesis of intra-abdominal adhesion development (IPAD) and other fibrotic diseases such as keloids, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and pulmonary, intraperitoneal, and retroperitoneal fibrosis. Following a literature search using PubMed database for all relevant English language articles up to November 2020, we reviewed relevant articles addressing the genetic and epidemiological similarities and differences in the pathogenesis and pathobiology of fibrotic diseases. We found genetic and epidemiological similarities and differences between the pathobiology of postoperative IPAD and other diseases that involve altered fibroblast-derived cells. We also found several genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms that are up- or downregulated and whose products directly or indirectly increase the propensity for postoperative adhesion development and other fibrotic diseases. An understanding of the similarities in pathophysiology of adhesion development and other fibrotic diseases contributes to a greater understanding of IPAD and these disease processes. At a very fundamental level, blocking changes in the expression or function of genes necessary for the transformation of normal to altered fibroblasts may curtail adhesion formation and other fibrotic disease since this is a prerequisite for their development. Similarly, applying measures to induce apoptosis of altered fibroblast may do the same; however, apoptosis should be at a desired level to simultaneously ameliorate development of fibrotic diseases while allowing for normal healing. Scientists may use such information to develop pharmacologic interventions for those most at risk for developing these fibrotic conditions.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Obstetrics and Gynecology