We have shown that glucose increases monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) in vitro. In the present study, we examined mechanisms by which glucose stimulates monocyte:endothelial interactions. HAECs cultured for 7 days in 25 mmol/L glucose had a 2-fold elevation in interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion over control cells cultured in 5.5 mmol/L glucose (P<0.001). Use of a neutralizing antibody to IL-8 prevented glucose-mediated monocyte adhesion. Both glucose and IL-8 activated β1 integrin on the HAEC surface, suggesting that both activate the α5β1 integrin complex on the endothelial surface. The α5β1 integrin complex is important for anchoring connecting segment-1 fibronectin on the HAEC surface for monocyte adhesion. Analysis of the human IL-8 promoter revealed binding sites for NF-κB and AP-1 as well as several aligned carbohydrate response elements (also known as E-boxes). Glucose dramatically stimulated IL-8 promoter activity. Using mutated IL-8 promoter constructs and EMSA, we found that the AP-1 element and the glucose-response element were responsible for much of the glucose-mediated activation of IL-8 transcription. Interestingly, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through use of pharmacological uncouplers of the mitochondrial electron transport chain significantly reduced glucose-mediated induction of IL-8 expression. These data indicate that glucose regulates monocyte:endothelial interactions through stimulation of IL-8 and ROS production and activation of the α5β1 integrin complex on HAECs.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Mar 7 2003|
- Carbohydrate response element
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine