Histopathologic Analysis of Temporal Bones with Otosclerosis following Cochlear Implantation

Sarah E. Hodge, Gail Ishiyama, Ivan A. Lopez, Akira Ishiyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Objective:Analyze changes in osteoneogenesis and fibrosis following cochlear implant (CI) surgery in patients with otosclerosis and compare differences based on insertion technique.Background:When advanced otosclerotic disease extends to the otic capsule, severe and profound sensorineural hearing loss necessitates consideration of a cochlear implant. Histopathological analysis of the human temporal bone after implantation in the patient with otosclerosis may reveal important variables that predict CI success.Methods:Histopathological evaluation of archival human temporal bones from subjects with a history of CI for cochlear otosclerosis. A total of 17 human temporal bones (HTB) were analyzed, 13 implanted, and 4 contralateral non-implanted controls.Results:Histopathological studies revealed extensive osteoneogenesis and fibrosis which was more prominent at the cochleostomy insertion site in the basal turn of the cochlea often obliterating the scala tympani in the basal turn, and in some cases extending to the scala media and scala vestibuli. Cochlear hydrops was nearly universal in these cases. This contrasted with the round window insertion, which exhibited minimal osteoneogenesis within the cochlear duct. In addition, in the contralateral, unimplanted control ears, there was otosclerosis at the stapes footplate, fissula ante fenestrum but no osteoneogenesis within the cochlear duct.Conclusion:Cochleostomy approach to CI insertion in otosclerosis patients is associated with significant fibrosis, osteoneogenesis, and cochlear hydrops. A round window insertion technique can be utilized to help minimize these histopathologic findings whenever feasible.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1492-1498
Number of pages7
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Dec 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Cochlear implant
  • Histopathology
  • Otosclerosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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