Historical development of whiteners: clinical safety and efficacy.

V. B. Haywood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Since the introduction in 1989 of a home tooth-bleaching technique, the practice has become widespread in the USA. Safety concerns led the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to temporarily ban sales in 1991 but the ban was later lifted, and the American Dental Association (ADA) now issues guidelines for safety and efficacy. Early information on safety of home bleaching products was often skewed because they were being compared out of context with those designed to be used only in the dental office. The early studies also failed to put the risks into perspective with the risks from other routine dental procedures. The risks are minimized with the systems supplied by dentists because he or she is able to diagnose any problems or special needs, to plan appropriate treatment and to fabricate, fit and adjust the prosthesis used to apply the material. A wide variety of disfigurements may now be treated successfully at home using preparations supplied by the dental practitioner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)98-104
Number of pages7
JournalDental update
Issue number3
StatePublished - Apr 1997

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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