How can nanoleakage occur in self-etching adhesive systems that demineralize and infiltrate simultaneously?

Franklin R. Tay, Nigel M. King, Kar Mun Chan, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

263 Scopus citations


Purpose: Single-step adhesives which etch and prime simultaneously and are not rinsed should not exhibit areas of incomplete infiltration within hybrid layers produced in sound dentin. This study examined the extent of silver uptake using ammoniacal silver nitrate in three two-step, self-etching primers (Imperva Fluoro Bond, Shofu; UniFil Bond, GC, ABF system, Kuraray) and one single-step, self-etching adhesive (AQ Bond, Sun Medical) bonded to dentin and four poly(HEMA) resins used as controls. Materials and Methods: Flat dentin surfaces were bonded with these adhesives and sectioned into 0.8-mm-thick slabs that were then coated with nail varnish except for the bonded interfaces and immersed in AgNO3 for 24 h. Four types of poly(HEMA) resins were made: 100% HEMA; 90% HEMA-10% water; 75% HEMA-10% water, all polymerized with TBBO at 50°C for 6 h; 100% HEMA polymerized at 25°C for 30 min. After developing, undemineralized, unstained, epoxy resin-embedded sections were prepared for TEM. Results: Nanoleakage patterns were observed in all bonded specimens. Fine segregated silver particles and reticular silver-staining patterns were found within the thin hybrid layers created by the three self-etching primers. For the single-step, self-etching adhesive, heavy silver deposits were identified within the hybridized complex formed by this adhesive within the smear layer, the underlying intact dentin, and in the adhesive layer. Increasing amounts of silver uptake were observed in poly(HEMA) specimens containing more water or that were polymerized at 25°C for a short time instead of 50°C for 6 h. Conclusions: Silver uptake in hybrid layers formed by self-etching adhesives in sound dentin is not necessarily caused by disparities between the depths of demineralization and resin infiltration. They represent areas of increased permeability within a polymerized resin matrix in which water is incompletely removed resulting in regions of incomplete polymerization and/or hydrogel formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)255-269
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Adhesive Dentistry
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthodontics
  • Oral Surgery
  • Periodontics


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