Cardiotoxicity is the umbrella term for cardiovascular side effects of cancer therapies. The most widely recognized phenotype is left ventricular dysfunction, but cardiotoxicity can manifest as arrhythmogenic, vascular, myocarditic and hypertensive toxicities. Hypertension has long been regarded as one of the most prevalent and modifiable cardiovascular risk factors in the general population, but its relevance during the cancer treatment journey may be underestimated. Hypertensive cardiotoxicity occurs de novo in a substantial proportion of treated cancer patients. The pathology is incompletely characterized—natriuresis and renin angiotensin system interactions play a role particularly in conventional treatments, but in novel therapies endothelial dysfunction and the interaction between the cancer and cardiac kinome are implicated. There exists a treatment paradox in that a significant hypertensive response not only mandates anti-hypertensive treatment, but in fact, in certain cancer treatment scenarios, hypertension is a predictor of cancer treatment efficacy and response. In this comprehensive review of over 80,000 patients, we explored the epidemiology, incidence, and mechanistic pathophysiology of hypertensive cardiotoxicity in adjunct, conventional chemotherapy, and novel cancer treatments. Conventional chemotherapy, adjunct treatments, and novel targeted therapies collectively caused new onset hypertension in 33– 68% of treated patients. The incidence of hypertensive cardiotoxicity across twenty common novel therapies for any grade hypertension ranged from 4% (imatinib) to 68% (lenvatinib), and high grade 3 or 4 hypertension in < 1% (imatinib) to 42% (lenvatinib). The weighted average effect was all-grade hypertension in 24% and grade 3 or 4 hypertension in 8%.
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitors
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