In Vitro Stimulation of IRE1α/XBP1-Deficient B Cells with LPS

Huabin Zhu, Chen Jiang, Randal J. Kaufman, Honglin Li, Nagendra Singh

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Scopus citations


During immune responses, pathogen-specific B cells differentiate into plasma cells. Plasma cells synthesize and secrete large amounts of immunoglobulin (Ig) molecules which play a central role in immunity against pathogens. The synthesis, proper folding, and secretion of these Ig molecules require expansion of the extensive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) network. Accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER is sensed by three sensors: IRE1/XBP1, PERK, and ATF6, which coordinate with each other and initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway to expand the ER network and its protein folding and secretion capability. The expansion and maintenance of the ER network in plasma cells is triggered by activation of the IRE1/XBP1 branch of the UPR pathway. Here, we discuss the methods to stimulate the differentiation of B cells into plasma cells, measure the activation of the XBP1 pathway, and quantify the ER network.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages11
StatePublished - 2022

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • B cells
  • Unfolded protein response pathway (UPR)
  • XBP1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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