Local immune regulation in the central nervous system by substance P vs. glutamate

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The response of parenchymal microglia to interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) varies across the brain. To ask if local neurochemicals contribute to site-specific control, the influence of substance P (SP) and glutamate was evaluated in brainstem vs. hippocampus. In brainstem, stereotaxic injection of SP increased class II MHC upregulation by IFN-γ, while a SP receptor antagonist (Spantide I) prevented it. In hippocampus, where the baseline response to IFN-γ was lower, SP was ineffective, but blocking glutamate enhanced the response in a proportion of rats. Attempts to understand and control immune activity in the CNS should take the local neurochemical environment into account.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)136-146
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 1 2001


  • Brainstem
  • Class II MHC
  • Hippocampus
  • Interferon-γ
  • MK-801
  • Microglia
  • NMDA receptors
  • Neural-immune interactions
  • Rat
  • Spantide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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