Mathematical analysis and topology of SARS-CoV-2, bonding with cells and unbonding

Arni S.R. Srinivasa Rao, Steven G. Krantz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


We consider the structure of the novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) in terms of the number of spikes that are critical in bonding with the cells in the host. Bonding formation is considered for selection criteria with and without any treatments. Functional mappings from the discrete space of spikes and cells and their analysis are performed. We found that careful mathematical constructions help in understanding the treatment impacts, and the role of vaccines within a host. Smale's famous 2-D horseshoe examples inspired us to create 3-D visualizations and understand the topological diffusion of spikes from one human organ to another organ. The pharma industry will benefit from such an analysis for designing efficient treatment and vaccine strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number125664
JournalJournal of Mathematical Analysis and Applications
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 15 2022


  • 3D horseshoe mapping
  • Bonding
  • COVID-19
  • Functional mapping
  • Host cells
  • Vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analysis
  • Applied Mathematics


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