The ability to monitor the migration and trafficking of cells in target tissues using noninvasive imaging techniques may contribute to the understanding of the role that cellular therapy will play in repair, replacement, and treatment of diseases. There are a variety of imaging approaches and methods that use contrast agents to label cells, including single-photon emission tomography with labeling done by indium oxine and technetium99m chelates, positron emission tomography by incubating cells with copper 64 pyruvaldehyde-bis (N4-methylthiosemicarbazone), optical or bioluminescent imaging by incorporating luciferase or green fluorescent protein-like molecules into the cell genome, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using paramagnetic contrast agents (e.g., gadolinium chelates, gadolinium nanoparticles, manganese chloride, etc.) or superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticle contrast agents for ex vivo labeling and in vivo cell tracking. This chapter will focus on the methods for intracellular uptake of MRI contrast agents, the methods used to label ex vivo nonphagocytic cells (i.e., primary cells, including stem cells, progenitor cells, or terminally differentiated cells such as lymphocytes, B-cells, neurons, and beta cells in islets) with paramagnetic contrast agents and SPIO nanoparticles, the validation steps used to determine if the agents are toxic or alter cell function proliferation or differential capacity, and the steps needed to translate cell labeling techniques from bench to bedside.
|Title of host publication
|Molecular and Cellular MR Imaging
|Number of pages
|Published - Jan 1 2007
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology