Micro-tensile bond strengths to sclerotic dentin using a self-etching and a total-etching technique

S. M. Kwong, G. S.P. Cheung, L. H. Kei, A. Itthagarun, R. J. Smales, F. R. Tay, D. H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

93 Scopus citations


Objectives: To evaluate the in vitro regional micro-tensile bond strengths of a self-etching/self-priming adhesive system to sclerotic dentin, in the absence or presence of phosphoric acid conditioning. Methods: Naturally-occurring, non-carious cervical lesions on extracted premolars were hand-cleaned with a slurry of pumice and chlorhexidine, then bonded without further cavity preparation. One group was bonded using Clearfil Liner Bond 2V (Kuraray Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan). The other group was first conditioned with K-etchant; 40% phosphoric acid gel (Kuraray) prior to the application of the self-etching primer. Artificially prepared wedge-shaped cavities were also made in sound premolars and bonded with the two methods as controls. Resin composite build-ups were made using Clearfil Protect Liner F and AP-X resin composite (Kuraray). After storage in water for 24h, the teeth were sectioned into 0.7×0.7mm composite-dentin beams along the occlusal and gingival walls, and at the apex of the lesions. The use of two conditioning methods, two substrate types, and three different locations yielded 10-14 beams for each of the 12 groups. After testing for the μTBS, representative beams that were stressed to failure were examined with SEM. Remaining fractured beams were demineralized and processed for TEM examination. Statistical analysis was performed using a three-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Results: Regardless of the conditioning methods, bond strengths to sound dentin were significantly higher than to sclerotic dentin (P< 0.05). With sclerotic dentin, there was no significant difference for the conditioning methods used, except that K-etchant significantly improved the bond strength at the gingival aspect of the lesions. Fractographic analysis revealed that the self-etching primer could not etch beyond the surface hypermineralized layer of sclerotic dentin. Interfacial failure occurred along the surface of the mineralized intermicrobial matrix and/or hypermineralized layer. With the use of phosphoric acid, a hybrid layer was only seen when the surface layers were thin. Incompletely removed sclerotic casts were evident in both groups. Significance: Removal of the surface layers of sclerotic dentin and/or conditioning with stronger acids may be beneficial to obtain stronger bonding to sclerotic dentin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-369
Number of pages11
JournalDental Materials
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Micro-tensile
  • Sclerotic dentin, Self-etch, Total-etch

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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