Microbial adaptation: Putting the best team on the field

Shiv Shashi Patel, Ken S. Rosenthal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Bacteria, viruses, and parasites are in a constant state of flux to win the game of survival established by the selective pressures of our body. Microbes can change their genetic makeup and become stronger in a manner similar to that of a baseball manager changing the players on a team and then selecting for the best team. Mutation, conjugation, transduction, transformation, and recombination are the genetic approaches that Mother Nature uses to alter the microbial team of genes, and then she selects the best team to play against the body's defenses and other challenges. This review will provide an overview of the options and methods available to bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and viruses such as western equine encephalitis virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, or human immunodeficiency virus as they evolve the genetic players needed to succeed as parasites within the different niches of the human body and withstand the selective pressures of immune and chemical antimicrobial control.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)330-334
Number of pages5
JournalInfectious Diseases in Clinical Practice
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2007
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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