BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: New treatment strategies for acute ischemic stroke must be evaluated in the context of effective reperfusion. Minocycline is a neuroprotective agent that inhibits proteolytic enzymes and therefore could potentially both inactivate the clot lysis effect and decrease the damaging effects of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA). This study aimed to determine the effect of minocycline on t-PA clot lysis and t-PA-induced hemorrhage formation after ischemia. METHODS: Fibrinolytic and amidolytic activities of t-PA were investigated in vitro over a range of clinically relevant minocycline concentrations. A suture occlusion model of 3-hour temporary cerebral ischemia in rats treated with t-PA and 2 different minocycline regimens was used. Blood-brain barrier basal lamina components, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), hemorrhage formation, infarct size, edema, and behavior outcome were assessed. RESULTS: Minocycline did not affect t-PA fibrinolysis. However, minocycline treatment at 3 mg/kg IV decreased total protein expression of both MMP-2 (P=0.0034) and MMP-9 (P=0.001 for 92 kDa and P=0.0084 for 87 kDa). It also decreased the incidence of hemorrhage (P=0.019), improved neurologic outcome (P=0.0001 for Bederson score and P=0.0391 for paw grasp test), and appeared to decrease mortality. MMP inhibition was associated with decreased degradation in collagen IV and laminin-alpha1 (P=0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Combination treatment with minocycline is beneficial in t-PA-treated animals and does not compromise clot lysis. These results also suggest that neurovascular protection by minocycline after stroke may involve direct protection of the blood-brain barrier during thrombolysis with t-PA.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing