Observations on healing following endodontic surgery in nonhuman primates (Macaca fascicularis): Effects of rhBMP-2

Gunnar Bergenholtz, Ulf M E Wikesjö, Rachel G. Sorensen, Andreas V. Xiropaidis, John M. Wozney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Objectives. The potential of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) to enhance bone healing following endodontic surgery was tested. The pattern and timing of de novo bone formation and cementum regeneration, and the potential for root resorption and ankylosis to accompany bone formation were evaluated. Study design. Pulpal infections were induced in maxillary and mandibular incisor teeth in young adult Cynomolgus monkeys. The teeth received conventional endodontic treatment immediately followed by surgical root resection. In a randomized split-mouth design, contralateral apical bone defects received rhBMP-2 in absorbable collagen sponge (ACS) carrier or served as sham-surgery controls to provide histological and radiographic evaluations following 1 (mandibular incisors) and 4.5 (maxillary incisors) month(s) postsurgery. Results. At 1 month postsurgery trabecular bone filled the apical bone defects. The newly formed bone appeared considerably more mature and had assumed characteristics of the contiguous resident bone at 4.5 months postsurgery. The resected root tips were almost completely covered by new cementum with a maturing functionally oriented periodontal ligament. Localized inflammatory infiltrates were associated with the filled root canals and extruded root-filling material. Root resorption and ankylosis were not observed. There were no apparent differences in healing patterns between sites implanted with rhBMP-2/ACS and those serving as sham-surgery controls. Conclusions. Under conditions where the influence of infectious elements and irritation caused by root filling material are minimized, bone formation and cementum regeneration appears rapid following endodontic surgery. rhBMP-2/ACS did not offer an obvious benefit above and beyond that of the native osteogenic potential in this animal model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)116-125
Number of pages10
JournalOral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • General Dentistry


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