Organization of the bovine gene encoding the endothelial nitric oxide synthase

Richard C. Venema, Ken'ichi Nishida, R. Wayne Alexander, David G. Harrison, T. J. Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

121 Scopus citations


The bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene plus 2.9 kilobases of 5′-flanking sequence has been isolated and characterized. The gene spans 20 kilobases and contains 26 exons and 25 introns. Two transcription start sites have been determined by primer extension analysis which are located 170 and 240 base pairs upstream, respectively, from the methionine translational initiation codon. Evidence supporting the upstream boundary region for transcriptional initiation was also obtained by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The 5′-flanking region lacks a typical TATA box but contains numerous putative transcription factor binding sites. These include consensus sequences for an AP-1 site, an NF-1 site, a tumor necrosis factor responsive element, two sterol regulatory elements, 3 acute-phase response elements, 6 GATA motifs, 16 CACCC boxes, 5 Sp1 sites, 15 estrogen half-palindromic motifs, and 9 fluid shear stress-responsive elements. The isolated gene promoter directs basal transcription of a luciferase reporter gene when transiently transfected into bovine aortic endothelial cells. High sequence homology of the promoter region to the human endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene promoter (75% nucleotide identity in 1.6 kilobases of 5′-flanking sequence) suggests evolutionary conservation of transcriptional regulation. Isolation and characterization of the bovine endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene should facilitate further investigation of mechanisms by which gene expression is regulated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-420
Number of pages8
JournalBBA - Gene Structure and Expression
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2 1994


  • (Bovine aortic endothelial cell)
  • Gene structure
  • Nitric oxide synthase
  • Promoter deletional analysis
  • Transcriptional regulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics


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