Pediatric Malignancies

Eric K. Ring, G. Yancey Gillespie, Gregory K. Friedman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Pediatric cancer is an extremely diverse group of diseases in a patient population that varies widely by age, development, and immunocompetence. Although advances in standard therapy and supportive care have improved outcomes for children with cancer, survival rates remain extremely poor for treatment refractory patients, and survivors carry a significant burden of long-term morbidities. Immunosuppressive checkpoint molecules that downregulate the host immune system and allow for tumor escape are demonstrating increasing efficacy in adult cancer trials. However, there are limited data describing these molecules and their inhibitors in pediatric cancer. In this chapter, we review the current knowledge on immune checkpoint molecules and their inhibitors in pediatric cancer and discuss unique challenges in this diverse patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationImmune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9780323549486
ISBN (Print)9780323549509
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Checkpoint proteins
  • CTLA-4
  • IDO
  • Immunotherapy
  • PD-1
  • Pediatric brain tumors
  • Pediatric solid tumors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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