Prenatal and Perinatal Anesthesia and the Long-Term Cognitive Sequelae: A Review

Robert B. Perna, Ashlee R. Loughan, Jessica A. Le, Jeremy Hertza

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Many children have cognitive weaknesses or impairments of uncertain etiology. A variety of gestational and early-life variables contribute to normative neurocognitive development with countless events potentially hindering successful neural development. Recent research suggests that anesthesia has the potential to negatively affect fetal brain development both prenatally and perinatally. Some of the anesthesiology research suggests that under certain circumstances, children may have a heightened risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disorders, and perhaps other issues. Though there are no prospective studies evaluating neurocognitive function in children after neonatal exposure to anesthetics, there are several retrospective reviews that demonstrate temporary neurological sequelae after prolonged anesthetic exposure in young children and larger studies identifying long-term neurodevelopmental impairment after neonatal surgery and anesthesia. Studies also suggest a heightened vulnerability likely during the first trimester, particularly when neurons are undergoing rapid development. Specifically, heightened vulnerability to cerebral dysfunction tends to be associated with exposure to multiple anesthetic agents, longer duration of exposure, and multiple episodes of exposure to anesthetic agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)65-71
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Neuropsychology: Child
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • anesthesia
  • cognition
  • medical populations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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