Prevalence and factors associated with smokeless tobacco use, 2014-2016

Dina M. Jones, Ban Ahmed Majeed, Scott R. Weaver, Kymberle Sterling, Terry F. Pechacek, Michael P. Eriksen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations


Objectives: We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of current use of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) changed during 2014-2016 and examine factors associated with use among adults in the United States (US). Methods: Data were obtained from Tobacco Products and Risk Perceptions Surveys of probability samples representative of US adults in 2014, 2015, and 2016. Change over time in current (past 30 day) STP use was examined using pairwise comparisons of proportions and multivariable logistic regression. Associated factors were examined using Rao-Scott χ2 and multivariable logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of current STP use was higher in 2015 (3.6%) than in 2014 (2.3%, p <.001) and 2016 (2.7%, p =.018) among US adults. In 2016, current STP use was associated with being male, under age 60, currently using hookah or e-cigarettes, and having less than a college degree. Rates of use did not vary by cigarette smoking status, race/ethnicity, income, or metropolitan statistical area (MSA). Conclusions: The prevalence of current STP use peaked in 2015. In 2016, current STP use was more prevalent among males and adults with lower education. Continuous monitoring of STP use is needed, particularly non-cigarette tobacco product users.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)608-617
Number of pages10
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Behavior
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2017


  • Polytobacco use
  • Smokeless tobacco
  • Smokeless tobacco marketing
  • Snuff
  • Snus
  • Tobacco use prevalence
  • Tobacco use trends

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Social Psychology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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