Pseudopalisades in Glioblastoma Are Hypoxic, Express Extracellular Matrix Proteases, and Are Formed by an Actively Migrating Cell Population

Daniel J. Brat, Amilcar A. Castellano-Sanchez, Stephen B. Hunter, Marcia Pecot, Cynthia Cohen, Elizabeth H. Hammond, Sarojini N. Devi, Balveen Kaur, Erwin G. Van Meir

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

289 Scopus citations


Necrosis and vascular proliferation are the pathologic features that distinguish the most malignant infiltrative astrocytoma, glioblastoma (GBM), from those of lower grades. In GBM, hypercellular zones called pseudopalisades typically surround necrotic foci. Although these cells are known to secrete high levels of proangiogenic factors that promote tumor growth, their origins are ill defined. We propose that pseudopalisades represent differing stages and histologic samplings of astrocytoma cells migrating away from a hypoxic/anoxic focus, often triggered by a central vaso-occlusive event. This proposition is based on our findings that pseudopalisading cells are 5-50% less proliferative and 6-20 times more apoptotic than adjacent astrocytoma, indicating that cell accumulation does not result from increased proliferation or resistance to apoptosis. Coexisting inflammatory cells account for <2% of pseudopalisading cells and cannot account for hypercellularity. Pseudopalisading cells show nuclear expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α, consistent with their hypoxic nature, and hypoxia induces a 20-60% increase in glioma cell migration in vitro. Hypoxic cells in vitro and pseudopalisades in GBM specimens show enhanced gelatinase activity, typical of an invasive phenotype. These results suggest that pseudopalisading cells are migrating at the periphery of a hypoxic center. To uncover a potential source of hypoxia and sequence of structural events leading to pseudopalisade formation, we performed a morphometric analysis of 234 pseudopalisades from 85 pretreatment GBMs. We found distorted, degenerating, or thrombosed blood vessels within the center of more than half the pseudopalisades, suggesting that at least a subset of pseudopalisades are two-dimensional histologic representations of tumor cells migrating away from a vaso-occlusive event.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)920-927
Number of pages8
JournalCancer Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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