Race does not predict the development of metastases in men with nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Colette A. Whitney, Lauren E. Howard, Christopher L. Amling, William J. Aronson, Matthew R. Cooperberg, Christopher J. Kane, Martha K. Terris, Stephen J. Freedland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Although race is associated with prostate cancer progression in early stage disease, once men have advanced disease, it is unclear whether race continues to predict a poor outcome. The authors hypothesized that, in an equal-access setting among patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and no known metastases (M0/Mx), black men would receive imaging tests at similar rates as nonblack men (ie, there would be an equal opportunity to detect metastases) but would have a higher risk of metastatic disease. METHODS: In total, 837 men who were diagnosed with M0/Mx CRPC during 2000 through 2014 from 5 Veterans Affairs hospitals in the SEARCH (Shared Equal Access Regional Cancer Hospital) database were analyzed. Data on all imaging tests after CRPC diagnosis were collected, including date, type, and outcome. Multivariable Cox models were used to test associations between race and the time to first metastasis, first bone metastasis, first bone scan, second bone scan among men who had a negative first bone scan, and overall survival. RESULTS: Black men (n = 306) were equally as likely as nonblack men (n = 531) to receive a first and second bone scan after a diagnosis of CRPC. There were no significant differences in the risk of developing any metastases, bone metastases, time to bone scans, or overall survival between black men and nonblack men (all P >.2). CONCLUSIONS: The lack of racial differences in the development of metastases and scanning practices observed in this study suggests that, once men have a diagnosis of M0/Mx CRPC, race may not be a prognostic factor. Efforts to understand prostate cancer racial disparities may derive greater benefit by focusing on the risk of developing prostate cancer and on the outcomes of men who have early stage disease. Cancer 2016;122:3848–3855.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3848-3855
Number of pages8
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 15 2016


  • metastasis
  • nonmetastatic castration-resistant
  • prostatic neoplasms
  • race
  • scanning practice patterns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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